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Also, according to tradition King Arthur, the legendary Once and Future King, sleeps in Cadbury Castle. Following the withdrawal of the Romans in the mid 5th century, the site is thought to have been in use from then until around AD 580. C. A. Coates, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Sites and places have been identified as "Arthurian", A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, "King Arthur 'was real, wasn't a king and lived in Strathclyde', "537 and Camlann (Flint Johnson, University of Wisconsin - River Falls)", "Academia up in arms over King Arthur's Glasgow roots", Bibliothque nationale de France [French National Library], "The Historicity and Historicisation of Arthur", "Early Medieval Tintagel: An Interview with Archaeologists Rachel Harry and Kevin Brady", "The Egyptian Maid, or, The Romance of the Water-Lily", "Arthuriana: Studies in Early Medieval History and Legend", Arthuriana: The Journal of Arthurian Studies, published by Scriptorium Press for Purdue University, US, "John Dee, King Arthur, and the Conquest of the Arctic", The Camelot Project, The University of Rochester, The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe, Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain, Locations associated with Arthurian legend, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=King_Arthur&oldid=1152330073, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles containing Cornish-language text, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 29 April 2023, at 15:48. It is surrounded by plains and forests, and its magnificent cathedral, St. Stephen's, originally established by Josephus, the son of Joseph of Arimathea,[12] is the religious centre for Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. It tells of a world filled with warriors armed with lance, sword, and armor. So the placing of Camelot in Wales at Caerleon could be quite plausible. WebProbable dates for historical Arthur, King of the Britons. [10], This lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. However, it was located well within territory usually thought to have been conquered early in the 5th century by Saxons, so it is unlikely to have been the location of any "true" Camelot, as Arthur is traditionally dated to the late 5th and early 6th century. Few however may realise that some of Winchesters first settlers arrived there more than 2,000 years ago. [102] Thus Richard Blackmore's epics Prince Arthur (1695) and King Arthur (1697) feature Arthur as an allegory for the struggles of William III against James II. [128], Arthur has also been used as a model for modern-day behaviour. This royal experience travels through the Middle Ages, studying the scientific discoveries and defensive practices of the time. So, he simply turns pale and silent when he learns of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere in the Mort Artu, whilst in Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, he is unable to stay awake after a feast and has to retire for a nap. [69] However, while names, key events, and titles may have been borrowed, Brynley Roberts has argued that "the Arthurian section is Geoffrey's literary creation and it owes nothing to prior narrative. The Mabinogion tales were written down in the 14th century but it is widely acknowledged that the stories they are based on date from much earlier than this. WebHere Ye! c. 1095 CE - c. 1143 CE Life "[70] Geoffrey makes the Welsh Medraut into the villainous Modredus, but there is no trace of such a negative character for this figure in Welsh sources until the 16th century. [6] In the Tavola Ritonda, Camelot is abandoned and falls to ruin after the death of Arthur. [72] Geoffrey Ashe is one dissenter from this view, believing that Geoffrey's narrative is partially derived from a lost source telling of the deeds of a 5th-century British king named Riotamus, this figure being the original Arthur, although historians and Celticists have been reluctant to follow Ashe in his conclusions. Cadbury Castle is also situated not far from Glastonbury Tor, a location shrouded in mystery and legend. [35] Artorius itself is of obscure and contested etymology,[36] but possibly of Messapian[37] or Etruscan origin. This early medieval settlement continued until around 580. Modern day visitors to Winchester cant help but soak in the history as they wander through the ancient streets of this small city. The Mediaeval period is reckoned from the fifth to the fifteenth century. Let us look at the top four contenders for Camelot. The story as a whole tells of Arthur helping his kinsman Culhwch win the hand of Olwen, daughter of Ysbaddaden Chief-Giant, by completing a series of apparently impossible tasks, including the hunt for the great semi-divine boar Twrch Trwyth. [55] This takes the form of a dialogue between Arthur and the gatekeeper of a fortress he wishes to enter, in which Arthur recounts the names and deeds of himself and his men, notably Cei (Kay) and Bedwyr (Bedivere). Arthur and his warriors, including Kaius (Kay), Beduerus (Bedivere) and Gualguanus (Gawain), defeat the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius in Gaul but, as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears that his nephew Modredus (Mordred)whom he had left in charge of Britainhas married his wife Guenhuuara (Guinevere) and seized the throne. Inspired by Alcock's Cadbury-Camelot excavation, some authors such as Marion Zimmer Bradley and Mary Stewart place their Camelots in that place and describe it accordingly.[14]. All are invited to join King Arthur's Court. In 1976 this round table was carbon-dated to around the turn of the 13th/14th century. As Norris J. Erec and Enide and Cligs are tales of courtly love with Arthur's court as their backdrop, demonstrating the shift away from the heroic world of the Welsh and Galfridian Arthur, while Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, features Yvain and Gawain in a supernatural adventure, with Arthur very much on the sidelines and weakened. ("What man is the gatekeeper?"). [41], An alternative theory, which has gained only limited acceptance among professional scholars, derives the name Arthur from Arcturus, the brightest star in the constellation Botes, near Ursa Major or the Great Bear. Arthur is considered by many to have been a Romano-British leader fighting the Anglo-Saxon invaders. In his Historia Regum Britannae Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote that Arthur was born in Cornwall at Tintagel Castle. In Poetry. [107] In the Idylls, Arthur became a symbol of ideal manhood who ultimately failed, through human weakness, to establish a perfect kingdom on earth. WebThis lesson explores the growth and transformations of the stories surrounding King Arthur beginning with the period when we first become aware of them as part of the oral tradition in Medieval Europe, follows them as they develop to become important literary works such as Christopher Malorys Le Morte D Arthur in Renaissance England and When Did King Arthur Live? As the story goes, King Arthur lived between AD 400 and 600. According to Nennius, a Welsh historian, a successful military leader really lived around this time. But he was just that and not a king. The Tale of King Arthur and His Knights of the Round Table If so, this may suggest that Arthur may indeed have been a real person and that some, if not all, of the deeds and accounts of him may be based in fact. For other uses, see, (), Srpskohrvatski / , Modern scholarship views the Glastonbury cross as the result of a probably late-12th-century fraud. Malory's identification of Camelot as Winchester was probably partially inspired by the latter city's history: it had been the capital of Wessex under Alfred the Great, and boasted the Winchester Round Table, an artifact constructed in the 13th century but widely believed to be the original by Malory's time. [1][2][3] Arthurian scholar Ernst Brugger suggested that it was a corruption of the site of Arthur's final battle, the Battle of Camlann, in Welsh tradition. This article is about the legendary castle. A less obviously legendary account of Arthur appears in the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii, which is often claimed to date from the early 11th century (although the earliest manuscript of this text dates from the 15th century and the text is now dated to the late 12th to early 13th century). The Worthies were first listed in Jacques de Longuyon's Voeux du Paon in 1312, and subsequently became a common subject in literature and art. He further suggested that Cavalon became Arthur's capital due to confusion with Arthur's other traditional court at Caerleon (Caer Lleon in Welsh). Indeed, every Midsummer Eve, King Arthur is supposed to lead a troop of mounted knights down the slopes of the hill. WebPeriod: 400 to 600. Absent in the early Arthurian material, Camelot first appeared in 12th-century French romances and, since the Lancelot-Grail cycle, eventually came to be described as the fantastic capital of Arthur's realm and a symbol of the Arthurian world. King Arthur: Directed by Antoine Fuqua. [44] The first is that he was a peerless warrior who functioned as the monster-hunting protector of Britain from all internal and external threats. Its imprecise geography serves the romances well, as Camelot becomes less a literal place than a powerful symbol of Arthur's court and universe. [98] Perhaps as a result of this, and the fact that Le Morte D'Arthur was one of the earliest printed books in England, published by William Caxton in 1485, most later Arthurian works are derivative of Malory's.[99]. The 12th-century French writer Chrtien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. [7], Archaeological evidence, in the Low Countries and what was to become England, shows early Anglo-Saxon migration to Great Britain reversed between 500 and 550, which concurs with Frankish chronicles. Leland fervently believed that King Arthur was a real person and did exist in historical fact. In the C manuscript (Paris, Bibliothque Nationale de France, fonds franais 794, folio 27r), which might in fact contain the proper reading of Chretien's original text,[5] instead of the place name there is the Old French phrase con lui plot, meaning "as he pleased". The cycle continued the trend towards reducing the role played by Arthur in his own legend, partly through the introduction of the character of Galahad and an expansion of the role of Merlin. Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey's Historia itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined. [14] The dig revealed that the site seems to have been occupied as early as the 4th millennium BC and to have been refortified and occupied by a major Brittonic ruler and his war band from c.470. The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur. Lacy (Ed. [8] The monks of Glastonbury are also said to have discovered the grave of Arthur in 1180.[9]. It also made Mordred the result of an incestuous relationship between Arthur and his sister Morgause and established the role of Camelot, first mentioned in passing in Chrtien's Lancelot, as Arthur's primary court. Sir Lancelot was in France at the time, and King Arthur was angry with him. [71] There have been relatively few modern attempts to challenge the notion that the Historia Regum Britanniae is primarily Geoffrey's own work, with scholarly opinion often echoing William of Newburgh's late-12th-century comment that Geoffrey "made up" his narrative, perhaps through an "inordinate love of lying". He is most commonly seen as the high Medieval king of 13th, 14th, and 15th century tapestries, paintings, and book illustrations, complete [109] Indeed, the first modernisation of Malory's great compilation of Arthur's tales was published in 1862, shortly after Idylls appeared, and there were six further editions and five competitors before the century ended. His value system spoke to his love of God and the land. He lead an army, of men in mail, against other troops. One of the most famous accounts of Arthur and his knights is Thomas Malorys 15th century work, Le Morte dArthur, a compilation of tales about King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table, taken from both French and English sources. Marcella Chelotti, Vincenza Morizio, Marina Silvestrini, Wilhelm Schulze, "Zur Geschichte lateinischer Eigennamen" (Volume 5, Issue 2 of, Online translations of this poem are out-dated and inaccurate. The Lancelot-Grail cycle and the texts it influenced depict the city of Camelot as standing along a river, downstream from Astolat. [105] Pre-eminent among these was Alfred Tennyson, whose first Arthurian poem "The Lady of Shalott" was published in 1832. Geoffrey's description of Caerleon is probably based on his personal familiarity with the town and its Roman ruins; it is less clear that Caerleon was associated with Arthur before Geoffrey. In the 15th century, the English writer Thomas Malory created the image of Camelot most familiar today in his Le Morte d'Arthur, a work based mostly on the French romances. In Welsh poetry the name is always spelled Arthur and is exclusively rhymed with words ending in -urnever words ending in -wrwhich confirms that the second element cannot be [g]wr "man". The name's derivation is uncertain. Most scholars regard it as being entirely fictional, its unspecified geography being perfect for chivalric romance writers. Stories about King Arthur are known from at least as early as the ninth century. David, Brian, Review of Nicholas J. Higham. [11] These modern admissions of ignorance are a relatively recent trend; earlier generations of historians were less sceptical. The second inscription on the slate reads Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had [this] made. King Coel (Old King Cole of the nursery rhyme) is said by Geoffrey of Monmouth to be one of Arthurs ancestors. Web241 likes, 4 comments - julien danielo (@docteur_danic) on Instagram: "469 - Riothamus Au crpuscule de lEmpire romain, un chef breton du nom de Riothamus, ce qui [61] Similar incidents are described in the medieval biographies of Carannog, Padarn, and Eufflam, probably written around the 12th century. [50] They include "Kadeir Teyrnon" ("The Chair of the Prince"),[51] which refers to "Arthur the Blessed"; "Preiddeu Annwn" ("The Spoils of Annwn"),[52] which recounts an expedition of Arthur to the Otherworld; and "Marwnat vthyr pen[dragon]" ("The Elegy of Uther Pen[dragon]"),[53] which refers to Arthur's valour and is suggestive of a father-son relationship for Arthur and Uther that pre-dates Geoffrey of Monmouth. [79] From the perspective of Arthur, perhaps the most significant effect of this great outpouring of new Arthurian story was on the role of the king himself: much of this 12th-century and later Arthurian literature centres less on Arthur himself than on characters such as Lancelot and Guinevere, Percival, Galahad, Gawain, Ywain, and Tristan and Iseult. The themes, events and characters of the Arthurian legend vary widely from text to text, and there is no one canonical version. [64] This work is an imaginative and fanciful account of British kings from the legendary Trojan exile Brutus to the 7th-century Welsh king Cadwallader. The so-called "Arthur stone", discovered in 1998 among the ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall in securely dated 6th-century contexts, created a brief stir but proved irrelevant. Director Antoine Fuqua Writer David Franzoni Stars Clive Owen Stephen Dillane Keira Knightley [40], Another commonly proposed derivation of Arthur from Welsh arth "bear" + (g)wr "man" (earlier *Arto-uiros in Brittonic) is not accepted by modern scholars for phonological and orthographic reasons. [13] Gildas's 6th-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (On the Ruin and Conquest of Britain), written within living memory of Badon, mentions the battle but does not mention Arthur. Certainly the spectacular and dramatic setting of Tintagel Castle fits in perfectly with the romance of Arthurs Camelot. [104] Initially, the medieval Arthurian legends were of particular interest to poets, inspiring, for example, William Wordsworth to write "The Egyptian Maid" (1835), an allegory of the Holy Grail. [96] This series of texts was quickly followed by the Post-Vulgate Cycle (c.123040), of which the Suite du Merlin is a part, which greatly reduced the importance of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere but continued to sideline Arthur, and to focus more on the Grail quest. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. Whilst Winchester Castle was built in the late 11th century, it is interesting to note that in the 9th century, the town of Winchester was the ancient court and capital of King Alfred the Great, a great warrior famous for defeating the Danish invaders and a great statesman, law maker and wise leader. Lacy has observed, "The popular notion of Arthur appears to be limited, not surprisingly, to a few motifs and names, but there can be no doubt of the extent to which a legend born many centuries ago is profoundly embedded in modern culture at every level."[131]. The name of the Romano-British town of Camulodunum (modern Colchester) was derived from the Celtic god Camulus. [65] He incorporates Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, his magician advisor Merlin, and the story of Arthur's conception, in which Uther, disguised as his enemy Gorlois by Merlin's magic, sleeps with Gorlois's wife Igerna (Igraine) at Tintagel, and she conceives Arthur. So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian medieval "chronicle tradition", to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians. [93], Up to c.1210, continental Arthurian romance was expressed primarily through poetry; after this date the tales began to be told in prose. A poem called Historia Brittonum from around 800 AD, believed to have been the work of a Welsh monk named Nennius, describes Arthur fighting alongside other Briton kings against the Saxons.The poem ends with Arthurs twelfth battle at Badon Hill. The other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which also link Arthur with the Battle of Badon. T. H. White's novel was adapted into the Lerner and Loewe stage musical Camelot (1960) and Walt Disney's animated film The Sword in the Stone (1963); Camelot, with its focus on the love of Lancelot and Guinevere and the cuckolding of Arthur, was itself made into a film of the same name in 1967. WebArthur was human and thus not perfect. One exception is Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, which locates Arthur's court at "Camelot";[10] however, in Britain, Arthur's court was generally located at Caerleon, or at Carlisle, which is usually identified with the "Carduel" of the French romances.[11]. The locations above are only four of the many places that have been associated with the Arthurian legend of Camelot. That he was a figure of imagination and a real person. By the end of the 19th century, it was confined mainly to Pre-Raphaelite imitators,[115] and it could not avoid being affected by World War I, which damaged the reputation of chivalry and thus interest in its medieval manifestations and Arthur as chivalric role model. This time period consisted of continual conflicts between the Saxons, Scots, He then defeats the Picts and Scots before creating an Arthurian empire through his conquests of Ireland, Iceland and the Orkney Islands. [17] The works were by far the largest known fortification of the period, double the size of comparative caers and with Mediterranean artifacts representing extensive trade[18][19][20] and Saxon ones showing possible conquest. [6] Chrtien depicts Arthur, like a typical medieval monarch, holding court at a number of cities and castles. See, Bourgs, Andr-Yves, "Guillaume le Breton et l'hagiographie bretonne aux XIIe et XIIIe sicles", in: Annales de Bretagne et des pays de l'Ouest, 1995, 1021, pp. [6] Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who defeated the Saxons and established a vast empire. It has numerous different spellings in medieval French Arthurian romances, including Camaalot, Camalot, Chamalot, Camehelot (sometimes read as Camchilot), Camaaloth, Caamalot, Camahaloth, Camaelot, Kamaalot, Kamaaloth, Kaamalot, Kamahaloth, Kameloth, Kamaelot, Kamelot, Kaamelot, Cameloth, and Gamalaot. 3545. A new code of ethics for 19th-century gentlemen was shaped around the chivalric ideals embodied in the "Arthur of romance". The history of Isca, Roman fort at Caerleon near Newport, Wales. However, this may not say anything about the origin of the name Arthur, as Artrius would regularly become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh. [82] Arthur's role in these works is frequently that of a wise, dignified, even-tempered, somewhat bland, and occasionally feeble monarch. "[17], Some scholars argue that Arthur was originally a fictional hero of folkloreor even a half-forgotten Celtic deitywho became credited with real deeds in the distant past. On the other, his warband in the earliest sources includes former pagan gods, and his wife and his possessions are clearly Otherworldly in origin.[47]. Interesting King Arthur Facts: King Arthur is a mythological king said to have been the ruler of Britain during the medieval period. King Arthur's parents were Igraine the Duchess of Cornwall, and King Uther Pendragon. King Arthur's nickname was The One, True King of the Britons. The legend of King Arthur contains many variations. [6][7] Camelot is mentioned only in passing and is not described: A un jor d'une Acenssion / Fu venuz de vers Carlion / Li rois Artus et tenu ot / Cort molt riche a Camaalot, / Si riche com au jor estut. Five of the remaining stories involve the legend of Arthur and his knights, even including one of the earliest references to the Grail legend. Web38. New York: Simon and Schuster. ; See. The legend of Arthur and his knights also appears in The Mabinogion, a collection of eleven stories collated from early medieval Welsh manuscripts, intertwining pre-Christian Celtic mythology, folklore, tradition and history. Votes: 4,052 [27], Several historical figures have been proposed as the basis for Arthur, ranging from Lucius Artorius Castus, a Roman officer who served in Britain in the 2nd or 3rd century,[28] to sub-Roman British rulers such as Riotamus,[29] Ambrosius Aurelianus,[30] and the Welsh kings Owain Ddantgwyn,[31] Enniaun Girt,[32] and Athrwys ap Meurig. Malory based his bookoriginally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Tableon the various previous romance versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories. In the 21st century, the legend continues to have prominence, not only in literature but also in adaptations for theatre, film, television, comics and other media. Well over 200 manuscript copies of Geoffrey's Latin work are known to have survived, as well as translations into other languages. The 9th-century Historia Brittonum also refers to this tale, with the boar there named Troy(n)t.[56] Finally, Arthur is mentioned numerous times in the Welsh Triads, a collection of short summaries of Welsh tradition and legend which are classified into groups of three linked characters or episodes to assist recall. From the coconuts to the Black Knight, you'll be happy you took the time to sit down and watch this cult classic. [15] He is absent from Bede's early-8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Badon. Nearly all the Britons were killed and their lands absorbed into the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. The historical basis for King Arthur has been long debated by scholars. From Geoffrey's grand description of Caerleon, Camelot gains its impressive architecture, its many churches and the chivalry and courtesy of its inhabitants. Camelot lends its name to the musical Camelot, which was adapted into a film of the same title, featuring the Castle of Coca, Segovia as Camelot. [19], Details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of Welsh mythology, English folklore and literary invention, and most historians of the period do not think that he was a historical figure. [39] Some scholars have suggested it is relevant to this debate that the legendary King Arthur's name only appears as Arthur or Arturus in early Latin Arthurian texts, never as Artrius (though Classical Latin Artrius became Arturius in some Vulgar Latin dialects). He appears in his first incarnation Later references date from the early 12th century, and include Geoffrey of Monmouths chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain), and later, the works of Chrtien de Troyes and Thomas Malory. Even at this stage Arthur could not be tied to one location. [63], Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, completed c.1138, contains the first narrative account of Arthur's life. Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur, Arthur's conception at Tintagel, his final battle against Mordred at Camlann, and final rest in Avalon. 10 Knights Of The Tiny Table (2021) This dice-placement puzzler sends Arthur and his companions into battle against the forces of evil. [33] However, no convincing evidence for these identifications has emerged. Nothing in Chrtien's poem suggests the level of importance Camelot would have in later romances. Although most scholars regard it as being entirely fictional, there are many locations that have been linked with King Arthurs Camelot. Many legends about a great king Arthur began at this time. Perhaps a clue to its possible location might be found in the sources we have for the legend of King Arthur. Released: 1975. Despite this, Cadbury remains widely associated with Camelot. In the early 19th century, medievalism, Romanticism, and the Gothic Revival reawakened interest in Arthur and the medieval romances. An Arthurian television series Camelot was also named after the castle, as were some other works including the video game Camelot and the comic book series Camelot 3000. Gaul is still held by the Roman Empire when it is conquered, and Arthur's victory leads to a further confrontation with Rome. In particular, Arthur features in a number of well-known vitae ("Lives") of post-Roman saints, none of which are now generally considered to be reliable historical sources (the earliest probably dates from the 11th century). Stewart's first three Arthurian novels present the wizard Merlin as the central character, rather than Arthur, and The Crystal Cave is narrated by Merlin in the first person, whereas Bradley's tale takes a feminist approach to Arthur and his legend, in contrast to the narratives of Arthur found in medieval materials. [111] Even the humorous tale of Tom Thumb, which had been the primary manifestation of Arthur's legend in the 18th century, was rewritten after the publication of Idylls. 5621230. That he was and wasn't a king, who was or wasn't named Arthur. Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but he is mortally wounded. It was almost certainly painted during the reign of Henry VIII in the early 1500s, as it has the Tudor rose at its centre and is thought to portray King Henry as Arthur on his throne, surrounded by the Knights of the Round Table. He first appears in two early medieval historical sources, the Annales Cambriae and the Historia Brittonum, but these date to 300 years after he is supposed to have lived, and most historians who study the period do not consider him a historical figure. WebKing Arthur learns that his wife, Queen Guinevere, has been having an affair with Lancelot, who at the same time remains loyal to the king, particularly after Arthur's traitorous nephew Mordred commits an attempt on his life. Other places in Britain with names related to "Camel" have also been suggested, such as Camelford in Cornwall, located down the River Camel from where Geoffrey places Camlann, the scene of Arthur's final battle. anthony pritzker yacht,

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